yes it is possible to do prawn farming in Jamnagar
Penaeus monodon and P. indicus are generally considered for farming, other commercially important species such as Metapenaeus ensis, M. monoceros, M. brevicornis, Penaeus semisulcatus and P. merguiensis are also potential species that can be grown in India. Another potential candidate species that is flooding international market is the White leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.
Although the Government of India has not yet given sanctions to culture it in the country, many Asian countries have already started to culture this species.
The farm must have good accessibility either by road or water, and communication systems throughout the year in order to facilitate supervision and transport of materials and products. It is important that the farm be within 3-6 hrs traveling time from the hatchery to avoid excessively long transportation time of the larvae and should be within 10 hrs from the processing plant to avoid deterioration of the product.
The type of soil is the most critical in site selection, since the shrimp will spend most of their time on the pond bottom during the culture period. Usually, clay or loam-based soil containing more than 90% clay and pH between 6.5-8.5 is preferable. Sites with sandy or silty soil should be avoided due to their porous nature that may lead to erosion, seepage of water and easy infiltration of waste into the soil. Prior to construction of ponds, samples of soil should be taken randomly from 5-10 spots at the surface and at 1 meter deep and sent to a laboratory for the analysis of soil texture and pH. Such data will be useful during pond construction and preparation.
A shrimp pond should be designed according to the characteristics of the selected site and the culture system. There is no unique design, but optimum and functional farm layout plan and design should be based on the physical and economic conditions prevailing in the locality.
Culture systems:There are three types of shrimp culture being practiced in most countries.
Traditional/Extensive Cultures:The ponds have irregular shapes and sizes, mostly 1.5 ha and bigger with a peripheral ditch or canal of 4-10 m wide and 40-80 cm deep. The pond bottom may not be properly leveled, but tree stumps are usually removed, although this is not required. Ponds are normally filled with gravity flow water during the high tide period with natural seeds and left for 60-90 days, without additional seed stocking and feeding. Stocking density in this type of culture is 0.5-5.0 pcs/m2. These ponds are normally partially harvested.
Semi-Intensive Cultureonds of 1-1.5 ha in size and are constructed with dikes to hold the water 1-1.5 m deep. PL are stocked into the pond at 10-15 PL/m2 and fed with commercial diets and/or fresh diets. The shrimp are harvested at 90-120 days after stocking.
Intensive Culture:The ponds are usually of 0.5-1 ha in size and are designed to keep the water at 1.5-2.0 m deep. A reservoir of at least 30 % of the pond area is usually required. High stocking density of 25-60 PL/m2 with feeding rate of 4-6 times daily and strong aeration is maintained.
Open System:This system requires a high supply of good quality water because it needs a water, exchange of more than 20% of the total pond volume at one time, in order to reduce pond wastes and the density of the plankton. Seed can be stocked up to 60 PL/m2 and will grow to 25-35 grams within 120 days. The open system has recently become less favorable to farmers since the environmental conditions, especially the quality of water, tend to deteriorate with time.
Re-circulation System:In order to avoid deterioration of the environmental conditions, several advanced and company run farms have adopted the re-circulation system to minimize contact with poor quality water from outside the farm. However, the farm must devote 40-50 % of the area for the construction of water storage/reservoir, sedimentation pond, treatment pond and drainage canals. To operate the system, cleaned seawater is initially pumped into the pond and kept within the system. During the culture period, the effluent from culture pond is drained into the sedimentation pond, treated with chemicals and pumped into the reservoir for re-supply to culture ponds. The stocking density for this system generally varies between 30-50 PL/m2 and the culture period is between 110-130 days.
Minimal Water Exchange System:The majority of small farms cannot support space for construction of the water treatment pond and reservoir as in the case of the re-circulation system. To reduce contact with the water from outside the farm, the minimal water exchange system or closed pond system is practiced in some countries, particularly in Thailand. The system involves filling up the pond with cleaned seawater, treating it with chemicals to eradicate predators and competitors. Then the shrimps are stocked up to 30 PL/m2 and cultured for a period of less than 100 days to attain the average weight of 10-20 gm. Since the system does not require water exchange, but maintains the water level in the pond by replacing the water loss due to evaporation and seepage with seawater or freshwater, it can be operated anywhere, even in the inland area where seawater is not easily accessible. The disadvantages of this system are that it requires low stocking density and high efficient water and waste management. However, it is suitable for production of small size shrimp because the culture period is limited.
Farm Design:An extensive shrimp farm should be of the size 0.4 - 0.5 ha and preferably drainable from the management point of view. The ponds generally should have concrete dikes, elevated concrete supply canal with separate drain gates and adequate life supporting devices like generators and aerators. The design, elevation and orientation of the water canals must be related to the elevation of the area with particular reference to the mean range of tidal fluctuation. The layout of the canals and dikes may be fitted as closely as technically possible to existing land slopes and undulation for minimizing the cost of construction.
Water Supply System: A shrimp pond is filled with water mostly by pumping. The pumps should be installed at locations where they can obtain water from the middle of the water column with least sedimentation and pollution. The pumps and inlet canal should be large enough to allow the ponds or the reservoir to be filled within 4-6 hrs. A screen should be installed at the inlet canal prior to the pumps to prevent clogging at the inlets.
Reservoir:A reservoir is important for the control of pond environment and storage of water supply when the water quality is inconsistent or the supply is intermittent. It is recommended that the area of a reservoir within a farm should be about 30% of the total farm area in order to hold a sufficient volume of the water supply. Some farms may use part of the reservoir for sedimentation purpose where biological filter feeding organisms are stocked. The reservoir must have an outlet that can allow total drainage.
Im intrested in Prawn farming... I have a agriculture (Paddy) land in Kanchipuram, which i want to turn as prawn farm, is that possible to grow the prawns in fresh water as the seay is almost 70 -8- kms away from my place.....could you share me the full details with investment, possibilities and project report... to read and proceed further...drop me a separate email email@example.com.