The cultivation of mushrooms is relatively simple and it can be a homestead project. The agro- climatic conditions prevailing at your place must be conducive for mushroom cultivation round the year when the temperature is 20-30 C and relative humidity is 70-80%..
. 20 varieties of mushrooms are grown in the world and only 3 or 4 varieties are grown in our country on scientific cultivation. Those are :
Nutritional value of mushrooms:
(100 grams of Mushrooms) (Grams)
1 Proteins 3.10 g
2 Calcium 1.5 0 g
3 Thiamin 0.14 mg
4 Riboflavin 0.16 mg
5 Moisture / Water 88.50 %
6 Carbohydrates 4-5%
7 Sugars 0.50%
8 Fat 0 %
9 Vitamin C 4-8 mg
Uses and medicinal values of Mushrooms:
• Mushrooms contain more sodium, potassium salts which are useful in reduction of obesity in human beings.
• Mushrooms contain more proteins and negligible sugars and are good source of food for diabetics.
• Mushrooms contain more dietary fiber which prevents acidity and constipation.
• Mushrooms contain more iron and folic acid which prevents anemia.
• Mushrooms acts as a curative medicine for kidney diseases.
Cultivation of Mushrooms require the following items:
7.Machinery & equipment
The seed used for mushroom cultivation is called as spawn. The quality of mushrooms raised by us depends on spawn used for cultivation .Spawn is available in 3 forms:
1. Spawn cultured in cow dung.
2. Seed spawn
3. Spawn cultured with ferralite mineral
Like the other mushrooms, paddy straw mushrooms . can be grown on various agricultural waste materials, with the use of different technologies. They grow well on different types of lignocellulosic materials, converting the materials into digestible and protein-rich substances suitable for animal feeds. They may be produced in the tropics on a mixture of sawdust and rice bran, rice straw and rice bran, saw dust and ipil-ipil leaves and other combinations of tropical wastes.
Method of Paddy straw mushroom cultivation:
Sterilization / Pasteurization
Paddy straw has to be cut in to 3-4 cm pieces and are to be soaked in water for 12-14 hours . Then the paddy straw pieces are taken out form water and are to be steaming at 100oC (pasteurisation) is more acceptable because the cost is lower and less susceptible to contamination. The substrate is steamed for 20 -30 minutes , depending on the volume and the size of the bags.
Inoculation / Spawning
Spawning is carried out aseptically; preferably using the same transfer chamber or the same inoculation room as is used in spawn preparation.
Grain spawn is commonly used to inoculate the substrate in bags. With grain spawn, the polypropylene packet is shaken to separate the seeds colonized with the white mycelium. A few spawn grains ( about 500grams ) are poured into the substrate bag.(26 X 14 “ size) The newly inoculated bags are slightly tilted to distribute the grains evenly in the shoulder area of the bag around the neck.
The highly industrialized method involves bulk-pasteurisation and bulk-spawning before the substrates are distributed in beds similar to those used for Agaricus. The system is labour-saving but requires more complex equipment. Bulk material processing and handling are highly risky for tropical mushroom cultivation due to the risk of contamination.
The spawned compost bags are kept in a dark room until the mycelium has fully penetrated to the bottom of the substrate. In 20 to 30 days, depending upon the substrate/substrate combination, the substrate appears white, due to the growth of the mycelium. The bags are kept for an additional week before they are opened to check that the mycelium is mature enough to fruit. Most strains of the mushroom form primordia after 3 to 4 weeks of mycelial growth. The bags are opened, to initiate fruiting, inside a mushroom house.
A mushroom house should be used and its size will depend on the number of bags prepared at any one time. The house may be built of Nipa, sawali, wood or concrete. Air vents on the upper walls will provide the ventilation required for the development of the sporocarps. At the same time a small amount of light should be provided inside the house. The walls may be covered with plastic or foam sheets to increase the relative humidity (80.95%) in the production house.
The paddy straw has to be removed from water and allowed to dry in the shade. The paddy straw is to be kept in 5 cm height layers in a polythene bag and a handful of spawn has to be sprinkled on it . Similarly , after filling of 4 to 5 layers of substrate and spawn in the bag the opening end of the bag has to be closed . Te bag may be slit either criss-crossed at four to six places, or simply slashed lengthwise. When following the latter technique At this stage the bags are called beds. These beds are kept in racks or suspended with a rope .
Fruiting requires an appropriate temperature range (20-28oC), ventilation, light moisture and humidity (80.-95%). To provide moisture, daily watering of the substrate is required. Watering, however, should not be so excessive that the substrate becomes waterlogged.
If the temperature inside the house rises to more than 30oC, a light water mist should be frequently used to lower the temperature and hasten fruiting. Doors and windows may also be opened, especially at night, to allow the cool night air to enter.
Approximately 21 to 25 days after preparation of beds , mushroom primordia will begin to form. Mature mushrooms should be ready for harvesting in another 10- 15 days. If the substrate has not yet been completely colonized, the onset of fruiting will be delayed.
To harvest the mushrooms, they should be grasped by the stalk and gently twisted and pulled. A knife should not be used. If kept in a refrigerator or in a cool place, the mushrooms should remain fresh for up to 3 to 6 days.
After harvesting from the top end of the bag, the other end may be opened to allow fruiting. The two ends are sometimes opened and allowed to fruit at the same time. After harvesting from the end portions, slits may be made on the central portion of the bag so that more mushrooms can develop. When a sawdust substrate is used, the harvested surface may be scraped lightly to expose a new surface for fruiting. As long as the substrate appears white, mushrooms will continue to form under adequate environmental conditions. When it appears colorless and soft, it is time to remove the bags from the house.
Yield ranges from about 100-200% of the dry weight of the substrate and depends on the substrate combination as well as the way in which the substrate has been managed during the fruiting season. From personal observations, the richer the combination and the whiter and denser the mycelium, the greater will be the mushroom yield.
To increase yield, the most common supplement used is urea or orchid fertilizer dissolved in water (100 gm in 100 liters water). Using a plastic mist sprayer, the solution is sprayed on the surface immediately before fruiting.
An yield of 1.50 kgs of mushrooms can be harvested from each bag (bed) . 150 bags of beds are always maintained by replenishing new bags and removing matured beds so that an average yield of 100 kgs per day is maintained.
The unit can be started with a unit cost of Rs.50000 to Rs.5.00 Lakhs depending up on the marketing strategy.
Please contact the under signed for further details and for project report for availing term loans from Banks