Floriculture is just like a fashion industry. Selection of right variety of flowers is an important tool in commercial floriculture. Battles in the international flower market can be won with producing quality of flowers, strong marketing & financial assistance so a grower should be very careful about selection of varieties.
Climatic requirement of Cut flowers:
Name of crop Commercial life cycle(Yrs) Day (0c) Night (0c) Humidity (%) Light intensity (Lux) Co2 Conc.(ppm)
Rose 6.5 – 7 (Yrs 24-28 Day (0c) 18.5-20Night (0c) 65-70Humidity (%) 60000-70000 Lux) 800-1000.(ppm)
Gerbera 2.5 -3 20-24 18-21 60-65 40000-50000 800-1000
Carnation 2 – 2.5 16-20 10-12 60-65 40000-50000 800-1000
Selection of cultivar:
Sustainable to tropical climate: The varieties selected should be suitable for growing in tropical condition and it should have mainly excellent quality production.
Production and stem length: The varieties selected should be resistant to disease and pest. A grower should select high yielding variety in combination with high market demand and mainly varieties which have longer stem length.
In general roses of different colours such as red, yellow, pink, orange, white, bicolour etc are grown & sold in market. The red coloured flowers are highly preferable in markets. It is recommended to have the following mix of colors.
Red 40 %
Yellow 20 %
Pink 20 %
Orange 10 %
White 10 %
Steps in plantation of cut flowers (Rose, Gerbera, Carnation):
Remove pebbles from the bed before plantation.
Adequate moisture must be available in the soil at the time of plantation.
The seedlings should be dipped in Bavistin (0.2%) solution and then planted on bed.
Plantation to be done by making holes or trenches on bed in a zigzag way.
Planting should be avoided during the hottest period of the day/year and it should be done either in the morning or late in the evening.
Care after plantation:
After planting, the soil around the plants must be kept humid and should not be over irrigated. Irrigate the plant with hose pipe immediately after plantation. During periods with strong sunshine or high temperature, the young plants must frequently be given an over head spray with water to assist establishment & reduce post planting losses. For first three weeks the irrigation should be done only by using hose sprayer & later on irrigation should be done by drip system. Mortality replacement should be done within the week after plantation.
Fungicides drenching schedule
S.No. Fungicide Dose Time of drenching
1 Bavistin 1 g/litre Immediately after plantation
2 M – 45 1 g/litre 3 days after plantation
3 Bavistin 1.5 g/litre 7 days after plantation
4 M – 45 1.5 g/litre 10 days after plantation
5 Bavistin 2 g/litre 14 days after plantation
6 M – 45 2 g/litre 17 days after plantation
Farmer should visit the market and study the following points.
Average selling price
varieties in the demand
Preference of colours, peak demand period major national and international market for the product
By exporting flowers to various countries a grower can fetch good prices. To capture export market he must produce good quality and quantity of flowers. He should study the international market by visiting the websites of different auctions in different countries, and websites of main traders and retailers in different countries. This will help him to get ideas about market and varieties performances. Demand season for flowers is generally from October to March. It coincides with marriage season, festival like Deepawali, Christmas and important event like new years and valentine. Trends in prices need to be considered while planning cut flowers productions
CULTIVATION OF DUTCH ROSE
There are three basic groups of roses traded within the international markets as mentioned below.
Sr. No. Type of Roses Stem Length(cm) No. of bud per stem Flower size Average Yield (Stems/M2)
1 Hybrid tea 50 – 120 1 Large 140 -150
2 Floribunda 30 – 70 1 Smaller 200 -350
3 Spray ( floribunda or polyantha) 40 – 70 < 3 Smaller 160 -200
Japan is having more demand for spray varieties. It is extremely difficult to market spray varieties in terms of stage of harvesting, post harvest handling and high freight cost. Hybrid Tea & Floribunda varieties are generally recommended for Indian conditions. Commercial life of rose plants in green house is 6.5 to 7 years. Later on its production declines.
Planting Material :Selection of high quality planting material is critical because of the high price of plants and their long productive life. These are two main types of rose plants that are widely used, first with their own roots and second with budded or grafted on a root stock.