Top graft of rose
Budded plants and Top grafts of rose plants should be 2 -3 months old and should be procured from authorized breeders for plantation at least 2.5 months before date of plantation. Planting material is available in poly bags and paper plugs.
Procedure for Planting Roses :
Bed preparation for Rose cultivation
Bed preparation for roses
Rose plant used for plantation should be two- three month old.& have minimum two dark green colour leaves. Bud union of rose plant should not be covered with soil, It should be 2 – 3 cm above the ground level. The sprout coming out of the union should face towards the path at the time of plantation. Rose plants are planted in a zigzag method on the bed. Planting distance: Plant to plant distance 17 cm and Row to Row distance 45 cm.
Sr. No. Area of poly house (m2) Planting density Total plants required
1 560 7.5 plants/ m2 4200
2 1008 7.5 plants/ m2 7560
Special cultural practices :
For proper growth of rose plant and high production special cultural practices are to be carried out as follows:-
Initial plant development/ mother shoot bending:
If the young plant is allowed to flower immediately after planting there is serious risk that the important structural frame work of the plant will be impaired. The various types of plants require different treatment. First flower is pinched after one month from the date of plantation so that 2 to 3 eyes bud will sprout on main branch to grow as branches and these branches in turn will form buds. When the plant attains this stage of growth, the mother shoot is to be bent towards the direction of path. This cultural operation in rose plants is done to initiate bottom break ground shoot. The maximum leaf area is required to build up a strong root system. The mother shoot is bent nearer to the bud joint.
a. Plant structure development: To develop more growing points and plant structure development plays an important role. After planting ground shoot will start growing from crown of plant. The weak ground shoots should be bent at ground level, for forming a basic and strong frame work of plant structure for production throughout their life cycle. The strong ground shoots should be cut at 5th five pair of leaves after four and half months from the date of plantation. The medium ground shoots should be cut at 2nd or 3rd five of leaves.
b. Bending in roses: Bending helps in maintaining enough leaf area on the plants. The maximum leaf area is required to build up a strong root system. Leaves are important for producing carbohydrates
6 H20 + 6 CO2 -------------------> C6 H12O6 + 6O2
The mass of leaves is also known as the lungs of the plant.
The growing suckers should be removed in order to check new growth on the bended stem. The buds should be removed from the bended stem in order to check the incidence of thrips and bud rot (botrytis). Only weak and blind shoots are selected for bending. Bending breaks apical dominance of the plant. It is continuous process and hence carried out throughout the life cycle. Bending should be such that the most of the stems lay below horizontal. In summer season it is generally advised not to go for bending as it provides favorable condition for mites incidence.
Bending is done on 1st or 2nd five pair of leaves. One can also grow roses in greenhouse without bending by keeping some blind shoots on plants in standing position for extra photosynthesis & uptake of water nutrients. While bending the stems, the care should be taken that the stem will not break and the leaves will not touch the soil on the bed.
Bending in rose plantation
c. Disbudding :- Standard varieties are those with one flower on each stem. But as nearly all varieties produce some side buds below the center bud. These side buds have to be removed. The removal of these buds is known as disbudding. It should not be done too early or too late. If done too early it may harm leaves and if done too late than large wounds in the upper leaf axil can take place. When bud attain Pea size and shows slight colour then it is right time to do disbudding.
For most spray varieties, the center crown bud is to be removed. Disbudding is generally done on weak stem so that it can convert itself to thick stem and in future cuts can be taken. Thick stem produce strong sprouts where as thin stem gives out weak sprouts.
d. Pinching:Removal of unwanted vegetative growth from the axil of leaf below the terminal bud is called pinching. This helps to get good quality flowers and buds and avoids wastage of energy in the development of auxiliary bud if done at right stage and right time. It leads to apical dominance.
e. Wild shoot (root stock) Removal:-Wild shoots are the unwanted growth that take place at the union on the root stock. They should be removed at the earliest as these will deplete nutrients and checks growth and development of plant. They should not be cut but removed from its union by pressing it with thumb in order to check its further sprouting.
Wild shoot (root stock) Removal