Feeds and Feeding Practices in Dairy Animals

Feeds and Feeding Practices in Dairy Animals

General Principles
• Dairy animals are ruminants and as such need bulk amount to fill their stomach.
• Dairy animals need to be fed for :
o Maintenance of their body ( day to day function ).
o For production of milk.
• In case of pregnancy, they need extra feeding in the last two months (for good health of the calf)
• Dairy animals are herbivorous and eat crop residues, cultivated grasses, tree leaves etc.
• On average dairy animal needs following quantity of dry matter ( out of feed , fodder , concentrate they are being fed with ) per day:
o 2% of body weight for their survival.
o 2.5 % of body weight for their survival and little production ( 6-8 Liters of milk per day)
o 3% of body weight for their survival and production of 10 to 12 liters of milk
o More than 3% of body weight in case of more production.
• Dairy animal young or old, empty, pregnant, in milk, or dry must be fed with mineral mixtures.
• Fresh, cool and abundant drinking water as or when required is necessary for good health and efficient production. Animals can drink hard water once they are accustom to it (usually needs 8- 10 days). They reject water containing more then 2% sodium chloride.
• Dairy animals are fed with fodder (green / dry), concentrate (home made or commercial): Concentrate is the mixture of grains and lugumin seeds besides bran. Ready-made commercial concentrates are mixtures of grains, urea, and molasses and may contain mineral mixture and vitamins.
• Dry matter content can be grossly calculated as:
o Concentrates : 70% is dry matter
o Green Fresh fodder : 10% is dry matter
o Green dried in air / sun : 20% dry matter
o Dry fodder / crop residues: 85% dry matter.
• While feeding note that, dry matter requirement should be met with 1/3 from green fodder, 1/3 from concentrate and 1/3 from dry fodder. Give dry fodder ad lib. Proportion of leguminous and non leguminous fodder should be in the ratio of 40:60
• Concentrates are usually costly. If needed, you can replace some amount of concentrate with green fodder. Five kilogram of leguminous green fodder is nutritionally equivalent to one-kilogram concentrate. Similarly, 8-10 Kilogram of non -leguminous green fodder is equivalent to one kilogram of concentrate.
• In home made concentrates: mainly crushed leguminous seeds (after threshing) and food grains are mixed in the proportion of 40: 60 along with oil cakes and bran in small quantity. For leguminous seeds Gram , Soya , bengalgram husk , Black gram are used and for food grains Maize , Jower , Bajra , Wheat , Rice are used.
• Fodder tree leaves viz. Subabhool; agathi,glyricidia etc. are best utilized as dairy animal fodder.
• Concentrate of leguminous nature contain 20-24% proteins, food grains contain 8 – 12 % protein. Green leguminous & non-leguminous fodder contains same quantity of protein on the dry matter basis. Dry fodder contains 3 to 5% proteins.
• Concentrate also contains oil cakes (Groundnut, cottonseed, copra, seasam, soya, sunflower etc.) On an average, they contain 24% protein.
• Besides protein animal needs energy. The best and cheapest source of energy is food grains (They contain carbohydrate). Protein and fats can also provide energy but they are costly. Oil in extracted oil cakes can also provide energy.
Mineral mixtures are essential especially in growing, lactating and pregnant animals. These mixtures contain Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Selenium, Cobalt, and Iodine in appropriate proportion. Such mixtures are commercially available. The recommended doses are.
Adult-30 gram per day
Growing Animals-15 to 20 grams per day.
Lactating animals-50 grams per day.
Advanced pregnant animals-40 grams per day

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Improves reproductive performance & conception
Enhances hoof health
Increases calving rates and calf vigor
Improves milk production & milk fat %
Maintain and maximize the milk yields
Choline for optimum health and production potential
Better Fat metabolism and liver function
Reduces stress in animals
improves health and performance
Improves immunity ,disease resistance and reduces failure

DFM(Sacchromyces cervesiae and Bacterial culture)

Accelerate rumen efficiency and animal performance
Improves dry matter intake and fiber digestibility and maintain the animal in positive energy balance
Reduce lactate production in the rumen
Enhance the rumen environment
Stimulate the microbial development in the rumen
Reduced risk of acidosis

Large Animal :30 -35 gm /animal/day to be mixed in the feed.
Small Animals :10 -15 gm /animal/day to be mixed in the feed
Concentrateve : 2 kg /100 kg feed

Each kg contains
Calcium 255 g
Phosphorus 127.5 g
Sulphur 7.2 g
Sodium 5.9 mg
Potassium 100 mg
Magnesium 6000 mg
Iron 1500 mg
Zinc 9600 mg
Manganese 500 mg
Copper 1200 mg
Cobalt 150 mg
Iodine 325 mg
Selenium 10 mg
Bio active chromium 55 mg
Vitamin A 7,00,000 IU
Vitamin D3 70,000 IU
Vitamin E 250 mg
Nicotinamide 1000 mg
Biotin 550 mcg
Choline chloride 50 gm
DFM 25 gm
Antioxidant qs
Flavoring agent qs

Competitive Advantages of the product
Metal Amino Acid Chelated mineral mixture
Fortified with Bioactive Chromium ,vitamins, and Biotin
Rich in Cholin chloride and DFM
Absorbed by active transport
Greatest bioavailability
Highly stable in the absorptive gut area
Superior in physiological activity
Stable when subjected to various pH ranges in gut
Dipeptide-like structure resists gastric acid hydrolysis & intestinal enzyme cleavage.

Presentation : 1 kg Aluminium foil bags and 20 kg HDPE bags




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