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Thread: sagwan tree farming

  1. #1 sagwan tree farming 

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    Hi this is sunil,want 2 know farming process of fine cotton & seeds for cotton & its pesticides,farming of sagwan plantation & hw to tak care of it.
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  2. #2 Teak Plantation 
    Premium Member manojsinghchandel's Avatar
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    Hi Sunil

    Details of Teak Plantation is given below:


    Common name- Teak ; Botanical name - Tectona grandis; Family-Verbenaceae


    Agro-climatic requirements :
    Teak prefers moist, warm tropical climate. It can withstand extremes of temperature, but maximum & minimum shade temperatures of 39- 44 0 c and 13 - 17 0 c respectively are the most favourable for its growth. It grows well in rainfall zone of 1200-2500 mm. It prefers a deep, fertile, well-drained soil. The sandy soil is considered to be the best soil texture for this tree. It fails to grow in the soil with pH below 6.5.
    Where to grow :
    Teak is naturally distributed in the peninsular region covering large extent of areas in various states. However, nowadays it is being planted in non-traditional areas in northern and north-eastern states.
    It can be raised either in block plantations on barren / degraded / marginal lands with good soil depth that are not fit for cultivation of agricultural crops or on bunds or boundaries of agricultural lands in multiple rows.
    Planting units :
    The number of plants to be planted by each farmer will depend upon extent of area and type of planting e.g. block or bund planting. The optimum spacing for block planting is 2 x 2 m accommodating 2500 plants per ha. On similar basis, the spacing of plants can be kept at 2 m in rows, in bund plantations. The minimum planting area for block plantation should be 0.2 ha or 500 trees per unit.
    Nursery technology :
    Teak fruit /seed bears a thick, hard and fleshy cover of mesocarp. The mesocarp is responsible for inhibition of seed germination. Teak fruits are therefore, subjected to various treatment methods before being sown in the nursery beds to get high germination percentage. Various methods of pre-treatment have been developed and are traditionally in practice; the simplest one being alternate soaking & drying. In pit method, fruit mesocarp is subjected to decay by burying them in pits with cowdung slurry for three weeks. Acid treatment to burn mesocarp is another method. Nowadays a mechanical simple device has been evolved, a prototype-II. It is a simple machine, on the pattern of an ordinary flour-mill, and very easy to handle.
    The plants are raised by sowing fruits in the nursery beds. Approximately 2000 - 3000 fruits (1 - 4 seeds per fruit) weigh 1 kg. Fruit treatment by alternate soaking and drying in open bed for 3 weeks hastens germination. Optimum sowing time is from April to May. Germination takes place within 30 - 40 days. Germination percentage varies from 60 - 80 . Irrigation 2 - 3 times a day initially is necessary. Seedlings when 12 - 15 month old with collar diameter of about 2.5 to 4.0 cm. are used for preparation of stumps for planting.
    Planting Stocks:
    It is advisable to raise nursery seedlings after collecting fruits only from plus trees i.e., phenotypically selected superior trees. In olden days teak fruits used to be collected from any easily available tree, but nowadays with awareness of genetic gain from phenotypic selections, fruits are collected from genetically superior plus trees. Hence fruits should be obtained from Forest Departments / or Forest Development Corporations. For eg., Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra (FDCM) has established seed orchards where genetically improved quality seeds are produced. Fruits obtained from such seed orchards will give better yield. One must be aware that in case of teak plantations any mistake in selection of planting stock may give a negative impact on the plantation which would be known after 10 years or more. So, selection of planting stock is the most important criterion in raising forestry plantations especially teak.
    Planting Methods :
    Teak can be planted at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m or 3m x 3m espacement. It can also be raised along with agricultural crops at a spacing of 4m x 4m or 5m x 1m.
    Plough lands thoroughly and level it of. Mark the areas for pit digging by alignment and staking.
    Dig pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm sizes. Refill the soil after seasoning and mixing with Farm Yard Manure and insecticides. On poor gravely sites, replace the pit soil by good soil.
    Use pre sprouted stumps or polypots for planting.
    Best planting season is monsoon; preferably after the first shower.
    Firm up the soil after planting and apply irrigation wherever necessary.
    Apply 100 g of fertiliser in pit at the time of planting and thereafter in split doses or as per the fertility status of soil.
    Carry out weeding operations regularly. Weeding may be carried out @ 3 operations in the first year, 2 operations in second year and one operation in the third year.
    Carry out soil working periodically for better growth of plants. One working in the Ist year and two workings in 2nd and 3rd year may be adequate.
    Debudding in the initial years may be done to improve the quality of timber.
    Undertake prophylactic and control measures for protection of plants from insects/pests and diseases to ensure good health of the crop.
    Irrigation:
    Study has revealed that, irrigation during stress period boosts the growth of the plants. Irrigation should be followed by weeding (3,2,1) and adequate soil working. Two doses of fertiliser (in the month of August & September) @ 50 gm per plant of NPK (15:15:15) may be provided every year upto three years. By increasing the inputs of irrigation and frequent thinning, it is possible to increase the rate of diameter growth. The increase in diameter growth is, however, dependent on increasing the size of the crown i.e.. decrease in the number of trees per acre. In other words, one can have either lesser no. of trees of higher girth or larger number of trees of lower girth. It has been observed that teak trees grown under irrigated condition grew faster but the sapwood content of trees increased, the wood became weak and wind damage became quite serious. A phenomenon of water blisters may also develop in teak trees grown under irrigated conditions. Such trees may appear quite healthy from outside but the inner heartwood may develop rot due to storage of excess water that increases the spread of fungi which may further damage the tree.
    Many people claim that, teak grown with fertiliser and irrigation give excellent result. Drip irrigation will induce surface roots and epicormic branching. Nitrogen fertilisers will increase the nitrogen content of leaves. Initially larger leaves will increase photosynthesis and faster growth. By about five years the dreaded defoliators and skeletoniser Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis would attack these plantations. These will drastically reduce the photosynthesising leaf surface. These insects have about 14 life cycles in a year. The control through insecticides is not, therefore, possible. Once the trees are established they generally donot respond significantly to irrigation and fertilisers.
    Harvesting, yield
    The highest growth under plantation condition in India was seen in the Indo-Gangetic belt of Haldwani Division. At 20 years of age the height growth was 23.1m and diameter was 28.7 cm. From the general yield table in the first quality teak at 20 years of age, the average diameter is 27.2 cm and average height is 23.2m. The number of trees per acre is 102. The total yield of stem timber is 28.04 m3; that means on an average a tree on first quality site at 20 years of age under natural conditions of growth will yield around 0.283 m3 of timber on good sites. At the best we may expect a tree to produce a maximum of 0.60 m3 of timber in 20 years under best conditions of intensive management and there could be a maximum of 100 trees per acre.
    It is said that plantation teak grows slowly after an age of 15 years and besides the strength is not as good as in case of naturally grown teak.
    It is generally seen that the effect of irrigation and fertiliser application in most tree species is very fast initially and thereafter it slows down. Therefore, the initial response of fast growth which is being seen in the young plantation will not hold on for a long time. Under natural conditions the best growth has been seen on alluvial sites where the soils are very deep and moist, but not wet (Teak is very sensitive to poor drainage).
    Normally, an irrigated plantation has been assumed to attain a growth in 20 years which is attained by a rainfed plantation in 25 years.
    It takes roughly 20-30 years to produce reasonably good quality timber.
    However, due to large market demand for teak, even the poles and small timber fetch good price. First thinning in 7th / 8th year and second thinning in 13th / 14th year may provide good number of poles and small timber to pay back the bank loan. In the final harvest by 20th year each tree can produce quality timber ranging from 7-
    Insects, Pest and Diseases :
    Teak defoliator & skeletoniser (Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis) cause extensive damage to young plantations. Root rot due to Polyporous zonalis is also common in plantation. Pink disease fungus causes cankers and bark flaking. Powdery mildew caused by Olivea tectonae & Uncinula tectonae leads to premature defoliation. It is thus necessary to undertake prophylactic and control measures to ensure good health of the crops. Fresh leaf extracts of Calotropis procera, Datura metal and Azadirachta indica were found to be most effective against teak skeletonizer. This method is of immense importance in the insect, pest control considering its harmless and pollution free implications on the environment further avoiding the operational and residual hazards that involve in the use of organic and inorganic insecticides.

    Regds
    Manoj Singh
    CAS Agribusiness Services
    Chandel Agritech Solutions Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
    chandelagro@gmail.com, 09810931908
    Website:- http://chandelagro.in/ / http://chandelagro.blogspot.com/
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  3. #3 Sagwan teakfarming 
    Premium Member shanmuga06's Avatar
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    Hi sunil,

    Mr Manoj might thought thatyou have asked about tectona grandis(teak)
    But i think that your question is sagwan teak farming is not related to Tectona grandis.Mr Manoj given very fine article about teak.But anyhow sagwan teak is normally called gmelina Arborea (kumil),komari in hindi .This will be entirly very different than teak.But what teak dos this sagwan tree will do like making furniture ,frames and allied uses.The gmelina arbora is very fast growing spice in the universe.So we also named as short tem investment.But Tectona grandis is longterm investment.

    THe melina arborea will very fast and attain the yield stage on completion of maximum 6to 7 years.By this tree the farmer will get minimum assured income of Rs 5000/- per tree on completion of seventh year.If you extend the rearing of the gmelina arborea for another 5 - 6 years the farmers will get nearly Rs 15000/-per tree .We can acccomadte nearly 250 - 325 -400 plants in one acre.

    For more details plz contact us:

    a Sivakumar
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  4. #4 Need Information 

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    Is there any farm or company who would be interested into the sponsership for the Melina arborea Plantation.
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  5. #5  

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    Quote Originally Posted by shanmuga06 View Post
    Hi sunil,

    Mr Manoj might thought thatyou have asked about tectona grandis(teak)
    But i think that your question is sagwan teak farming is not related to Tectona grandis.Mr Manoj given very fine article about teak.But anyhow sagwan teak is normally called gmelina Arborea (kumil),komari in hindi .This will be entirly very different than teak.But what teak dos this sagwan tree will do like making furniture ,frames and allied uses.The gmelina arbora is very fast growing spice in the universe.So we also named as short tem investment.But Tectona grandis is longterm investment.

    THe melina arborea will very fast and attain the yield stage on completion of maximum 6to 7 years.By this tree the farmer will get minimum assured income of Rs 5000/- per tree on completion of seventh year.If you extend the rearing of the gmelina arborea for another 5 - 6 years the farmers will get nearly Rs 15000/-per tree .We can acccomadte nearly 250 - 325 -400 plants in one acre.

    For more details plz contact us:

    a Sivakumar
    sivakumar i am intrest please send me your mail id or contact
    Last edited by moderator A; January 11th, 2011 at 03:34 PM. Reason: Only Business Members are allowed to post contact info. Please click "My Account" to upgrade your account to a Business Member account.
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  6. #6 Swagan Teak cultivation(Gmelina Arborea) 
    Premium Member shanmuga06's Avatar
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    Gmelina arborea (KUMIL in tamil) swagan teak cultivation plz contact us for seedlings and follow up.

    Thank you

    a Sivakumar
    PRiya Nursery Garden
    KARAIKUDI-630001,TN
    09843080275
    priyagar06@yahoo.co.in
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  7. #7 Market Potential of Sagwan trees demand for last 3 years 

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    Dear Sir,

    I am planning for large area plantation of sagwan trees. I would like to know its market potential for last three years in terms of demand & supply.

    Regards,

    Sujit Kulkarni
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  8. #8 Swagan Teak cultivation(Gmelina Arborea) 
    Premium Member shanmuga06's Avatar
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    HI Sujit,

    Thank you for kind enquiry and your interest in Gmelina arborea cultivation.Dnt worry we will do all things i.e plantation to harvest.We are having good quality and fast growth swagan teak saplings with us.These seedlings are just ordinary one i.e propagated from seed germination and no other hitech has not been used.

    For more information & details plz contact us:

    A Sivakumar
    Priya Nursery Garden
    KARAIKUDI-630001,TN
    9843080275
    priyagar06@yahoo.co.in
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