hi, I want to develop a rose farm (for cut roses) in west UP in about one acre of well fertile & well irrigated land. Can anybody help me in deciding what are the best varities (in terms of market value of flowers) to grow & from where I can get them and what is the best time to plant them.
I can't spend 25-30 lacs in developing imported polyhouse structures, I want to start with cost effective wooden structures with polythene cover to start with. So please let me know the way to setup the farm with as little cost as possible.
Last edited by surajsingh; December 30th, 2008 at 12:02 AM.
STEP-WISE CULTIVATION TECHNIQUE .
1. SOIL QUALITY: Sandy-loam, red-loam, silty-loam soil will be best suited for rose cultivation. .
2. SOIL pH: 5.5 to 6.5 is ideal for rose, because useful soil bacteria that fix the atmospheric nitrogen and solubilises phosphate present in the soil grow well around this range of pH. If the pH falls below 5.5 than it can be amended by applying lime powder @ 100 kg per acre.
4. CLIMATE: Climatic factors controls the growth of rose plants. Rose usually dislikes humid climate, but can tolerate high temperature. Further, rose does not bloom in a temperature below 10° Celsius. Rose plant should receive 8 hours exposure to sun rays. Shady area is not at all suitable for rosary.
5. LAND: Up land having proper drainage of excess of sub-soil water. Any robbing roots of plants like coconut or some big trees near the rose field will retard the growth of rose plants as these robbing roots suck the nutrients from the nearby lands.
6. TYPES OF CULTIVARS NEEDED FOR COMMERCIAL ROSARY:
1. Hybrid Tea Roses which are evolved by crossing Tea Roses with perpetuals are suitable for big venture, but not for the beginners or small growers. Hybrid Tea Roses are highly valued in the cut flowers markets all over the world due to attractive size and colours, but their cultivation requires maximum cares, modern technological adoption and skill or expertise. After acquiring the required expertise, one can venture out for hybrid tea roses. It has export potential.
2. Common commercial roses for decoration purposes; A beginner can start with such roses as they require less cares and technology.
3. Floribundas are exotic variety roses evolved by crossing hybrid polyantha with Hybrid Teas. Floribundas require high skill and more attention. It is suitable for big ventures for 100 % export. Floribundas can also be cultivated along with hybrid tea roses in a big way.
4. Damask rose may be cultivated exclusively for manufacturing rose essence, rose-water and a pan Masala called Gulkand in industrial scale. In India, damask rose is being cultivated extensively in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarachanl states.
7. LAND PREPARATION:
(I) TIME OF TILLAGE : October to November
(II) DEPTH OF TILLAGE: 9" tillage by tractor or bullock drawn plough followed by 15 days exposure to sun rays.
(III) PIT PREPARATION
(a) Size: For rose cultivation, pits of size 45 cm X 45 cm X 30 cm are prepared for plantation of rose plantlets.
(b) Spacing: 0.75m from pit to pit & 0.75m from row to row in low density cultivation accommodating about 7,000 plants per acre with plant density 1.729/m2. In case of green house culture, high density plantation will accommodate 28,000 plants per acre having plant density 71m2, ( 1 hactare= 2.471 acres)
(c) Refilling of Pits: After exposing to sun rays for 15 days the pits are refilled with soil-manure mixture in the following composition.
i. Soil 40%
ii. Cow-dung 40%
iii.Leaf-mould 10 %
iv.Oil-cake, Bone-meal 10 %
v. Urea 25g
vi. SSP 100 g
vii. MOP 50g
Plantlets are planted after a week of refilling the pits.
8. PLANTING MATERIALS:
(I) BUD-GRAFTED PLANTLETS: Bud grafted plantlets are usually used as the planting material in rose cultivation. In bud grafting method, wild variety of rose like Rosa gigentia is usually used as root-stock on which buds of exotic varieties are grafted. Such grafted plantlets are available with Nurseries.
(II) SEEDLINGS: Raising of seedling from rose seed is possible, the process is very cumbersome and delatory. Seedlings from seeds are raised in case of invention of new varieties on hybridization.
(III) TISSUE CULTURE: Disease free and high yielding rose plantlets are now being produced in large quantities in wide range of varieties by tissue culture method which is a branch of modern biotechnology. An entrepreneur who wants to start a commercial rosary in a big way must use tissue culture plantlets to maintain quality of produce.
9. PLANTATION: The planting materials are planted in the prepared pits during evening hours. Before planting, 5 gram of Furadan 3G is to be applied to the pit for controlling pests. After plantation, the plantlets as well as the root zone of each plant to be sprayed with systemic fungicide like Bavistin ( 2g in one litre of water) as a prophylactic against fungal diseases.
10. MAINTENANCE CARES:
(i) REMOVAL OF SUCKERS OF ROOT STOCK: Very often, off shoots or suckers from the root-stock stem come up at the base of the plantlets or below the grafted point which, if allows to grow by mistake, will retard the growth of the grafted part ultimately leading to its death. The off-shoot of the root-stock part will be seven leaved and odd pinnate which is to be pinched off as soon as it comes up. Such unwanted suckers should be removed by nail pinching or by a sharp knife.
(ii) IRRIGATION: Twice a week during October to March, Thrice a week during April to June. No irrigation is required during the rainy season.
(iii) MULCHING: Mulching is an agro technique for conservation of soil moisture around the root zone of the plants and to facilitate gradual supply of nutrients to the plants. it is particularly very much important in arid and semi-arid zones where water becomes scarce during summer. The technique is very simple - agro wastes like straw, dried leaves, grass clippings, rice husk or other wastes like Shaw dust, used tea, or leaf-mould are spread around the root of the plants with a radius of 1 to 2 feet and 4 inches thickness. This mulching reduces the rate of evaporation and thereby assisting the soil to conserve moisture. Further, it helps the soil to retain necessary biological temperature for proper intake of nutrients by the plants. But, one should remember to apply 10 % BHC or Aldrin to the soil and mulch in white ant infested areas. Now-a- days, black polyethylene sheet is used as mulch which is proved to be more efficacious and easy to manage.
(iv) MANURES & FERTILISERS
Manures/ Fertilisers Doses & intervals of application of manures & fertilizers
30 days 60 days 120 days Thereafter in October
1. Urea 10 g/p - - -
2. SSP 25g/p - - -
3. MOP 25 g/p - - -
4. Well rotten oil-cake in water 100ml/p 100ml/p 150ml/p 100ml/p
5. Bone-meal 50g/p - - -
6 Oil-cake solid 100g/p
7. Cow-dung or compost 2kg/p - - -
8. Micro nutrients as foliar spray yes yes yes yes
(v) WINTERING: It is an agro technique applicable to rose and lemon. In this technique, irrigation is withdrawn for a period of 5 to 10 days which force the sap to move from root to stem and leaves. After withdrawal of irrigation, the soil is removed from the root zone exposing the roots for 2 - 3 days. The old leaves turn yellow and fall. Old and week stem are dried up. But, we have to see that the whole plant does not dye in this harsh treatment. This helps the plant to produce healthy shoots and good blooming.
(vi) PRUNING: It is a peculiarity with the rose that the old stem gradually stop giving healthy shoots to bear good flowers, if old and week stems are pruned after wintering, healthy shoots come up which bear good flowers. Therefore, wintering followed by pruning are the two important operation under the general maintenance cares. Without periodic pruning of old and week stems, at least once a year during October rose plant cannot yield qualitatively as well as quantitatively.
11. HARVESTING: After initial planting in December or January (say), rose starts blooming from March and plant will yield on economic scale for 3 years.
(i) Plucking Stage: For commercial purpose, roses are plucked at the bud stage just prior to blooming stage having a stalk of 9" to 12" long as per the preference of the market.
(ii) Time of Plucking: Buds must be cut out from the plant by a sharp knife during the evening hours to keep them fresh.
(iii) Packaging: Buds with long stalk are made to bundles of 100 as need may be and put in the bamboo baskets which are kept floating on water so that the cut end touch the water. Flowers are transported to market while covering the baskets with wet linen. .
ECONOMICS OF ROSE CULTIVATION (EXPORT ORIENTED)
YEAR 1 2 3-7 8
1. No. of flowering stems/plant - 15 20 15
2. No. of flowering stems/m2 - 105 140 105
3. No. of flowering stems/acre - 4.20 4.48 4.20
( in lakhs )
4. No. of export quality flowers
Year 2: 80% - 3.36 4.32 3.36
Year 3: 90%
a. export @ RS.6/stem - - 20.16 28.80 13.44*
b. Domestic @ Re.1/stem - - 0.84 0.48 0.84
c. Gross - - 21.00 29.28 14.28
6. Residual value 5.00