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Thread: Cashewnut farming

  1. #1 Cashewnut farming 

    Join Date
    Jul 2007
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    4
    Hi,
    I wish to start Cashew farming. I have 4-5 acres of land near Mumbai.If anyone can help me with details-
    Type of soil required
    Investment,Labour ,Fertilizers required...
    Sale situation.

    Regards,
    Manish
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  2. #2  
    kirti s's Avatar
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    Jan 2006
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    Dear Sir

    Climatic requirements

    Cashew trees are genuinely tropical and very frost sensitive.
    The trees grow in a wide spectrum of climatic regions between the 25 N and S latitudes.
    Although the cashew can withstand high temperatures, a monthly mean of 25 C is regarded as optimal.
    Yearly rainfall of 1 000 mm is sufficient for production but 1 500 to 2 000 mm can be regarded as optimal.
    The cashew tree has a well-developed root system and can tolerate drought conditions. Rain during the flowering season causes flower abortion due to anthracnose and mildew.
    During harvesting, while nuts are on the ground, rain and overcast weather causes the nuts to rot or start germinating.
    Nuts germinate within 4 days when lying on wet soil.


    Planting
    Fresh seeds that sink in water are planted in an upright position in a planting bag containing a loose, sterilised soil mixture. Three to four seeds can be planted directly in the planting hole. The weakest ones are thinned out later and the strongest left to develop further. The seedlings are very susceptible to Phytophthora root rot. The plant bags should be 350 to 400 mm deep, as the tap-root grows very fast and bends around as soon as it touches the bottom.


    DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE





    The tree

    The cashew-nut tree is a fast grower and an evergreen tropical tree. It grows to a height of 12 m. Blossoming takes place between November and January. Seedling trees flower in the third year after planting. The fruit ripens fully within 2 months.

    The fruit (nut)

    The nut is attached to the lower portion of the cashew apple which is conically shaped. The cashew nut (seed) hangs at the bottom of the apple, and is c-shaped.

    The cashew seed has within the outside shell the edible kernel or nut. In its raw form the cashew kernel is soft, white and meaty. When roasted it changes colour and taste. Salted, it appeals to the palate as the most delicious nut.

    Cashew apples and cashew nuts are excellent sources of nutrition. The cashew apple contains five times more vitamin C than an orange and contains more calcium, iron and vitamin B1 than other fruit such as citrus, avocados and bananas.

    Cashew shell oil extracted from the shells is caustic and causes burns on the skin. The mucous membranes of the mouth and throat are severely affected when it comes into contact with shell oil or the irritating fumes emitted during roasting. The oily shell liquid has many uses.

    Climatic requirements

    Cashew trees are genuinely tropical and very frost sensitive.
    The trees grow in a wide spectrum of climatic regions between the 25 N and S latitudes.
    Although the cashew can withstand high temperatures, a monthly mean of 25 C is regarded as optimal.
    Yearly rainfall of 1 000 mm is sufficient for production but 1 500 to 2 000 mm can be regarded as optimal.
    The cashew tree has a well-developed root system and can tolerate drought conditions. Rain during the flowering season causes flower abortion due to anthracnose and mildew.
    During harvesting, while nuts are on the ground, rain and overcast weather causes the nuts to rot or start germinating.
    Nuts germinate within 4 days when lying on wet soil.
    Trees grow well at Pongola, Hluhluwe, Mtubatuba and Makhathini where the climate can be described as warm-subtropical. The Natal coastal region north of Empangeni as well as the Pongola valley are suitable areas for cashew production. Regions in the interior, such as Malelane and Hoedspruit, with warm summers and winters are also suitable. In other subtropical regions of South Africa, where the absolute minimum temperature falls below 7 C, commercial plantings will be at a high risk.




    Soil requirements
    The cashew is a strong plant that is renowned for growing in soils, especially sandy soils, that are generally unsuitable for other fruit trees. For the best production deep, well-drained sandy or sandy-loam soil is recommended. Cashew trees will not grow in poorly-drained soils.

    Establishment
    Self-pollination and cross-pollination play an important role in the formation of cashew seed. Seedlings therefore show great variation and no "true to type" trees can be grown from seed.

    Selected trees should preferably be multiplied by grafting or air layering because vegetative propagation will ensure the best production and quality. Trees that are precocious bearers and grow vigorously are selected.

    Nuts should weigh between 8 and 9 g with a density of not less than 1,0.

    Trees with yellow to grey-brown apples have exhibited the most resistance against anthracnose and are associated with the best production.

    Planting
    Fresh seeds that sink in water are planted in an upright position in a planting bag containing a loose, sterilised soil mixture. Three to four seeds can be planted directly in the planting hole. The weakest ones are thinned out later and the strongest left to develop further. The seedlings are very susceptible to Phytophthora root rot. The plant bags should be 350 to 400 mm deep, as the tap-root grows very fast and bends around as soon as it touches the bottom.

    Grafting
    Two grafting techniques, namely side grafting and wedge grafting are practised with success. Grafting should commence as soon as possible (seedlings of 3-4 months old) and planted out in the orchard to prevent the tap-root from bending.

    Seedlings
    Cashew seedlings are grown under shade (45 %) and hardened off before planting in the orchard. It is very important not to disturb the root system during planting. Young trees should be supported for the first 2 to 3 years so that wind will not blow the plants over.

    Planting distance
    Planting distances of 8 x 5 m is recommended. The trees grow vigorously in the first 3 years and as soon as the crowns touch each other alternate trees should be removed until the permanent planting distance of 10 to 12 m is reached. Branches hanging on the ground should be removed because they interfere with harvesting. In other parts of the world cashew trees bear well, in spite of the little attention devoted to the orchards

    Irrigation
    Irrigation is important during establishment of young trees because it doubles the growth tempo of young trees in a dry season. Due to the deep root system the trees can survive several months without irrigation. Mature trees should receive 1 800 l of water per tree every 2 weeks.

    Weed control
    Grass strips in the inter-rows between the tree lines are ideal to prevent erosion and should be cut regularly.

    Processing
    The objective of cashew processing is to extract the healthy, tasty kernel from the raw nut in the shell. Most modern factories are designed to obtain the maximum number of whole nuts and as much shell oil as possible. Processing can be subdivided into a series of steps.

    Drying
    Harvested nuts are dried in the sun for a few days. Properly dried nuts can be stored for 2 years before being shelled. Nuts are roasted to discharge the caustic shell oil and acrid fumes. Hand shelling is impossible if the shell oil has not been removed previously. Kernels must be protected from contamination by the shell oil because it would cause blisters in the mouth and throat when eaten. Before the nuts are roasted they must be soaked in waterthe moisture in the shell facilitates the rupturing of the cells containing shell oil and retaining it in the shell. Moisture makes the kernel slightly rubbery and limits breakage of the kernels. The easiest method to wet the shells is to heap the nuts into big piles and to use sprinklers intermittently. Steam may also be used.

    The simplest roasting method is to heat the nuts for about a minute in an open pan with holes. Acid fumes are released and if the nuts should catch fire the flames can be doused with water. A more efficient method is to use a slanting perforated cylinder that is rotated above a fire. The shell oil flows through the holes in the cylinder and is collected in a catch through. After the roasting process the nuts are dumped into ash or sawdust to remove the excess shell oil still clinging to the shells.

    Kirti
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  3. #3  

    Join Date
    Jan 2008
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    9
    mildew and Phytophthora root rot can be prevented. If interested please contact me
    Last edited by Ritika; March 11th, 2008 at 03:15 PM. Reason: Only Business members are allowed to post contact details. Please click "Upgrade" to become a Business member
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  4. #4  

    Join Date
    May 2008
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    16
    Can you please let me the econmic prospective of Cashew..........
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  5. #5  
    kirti s's Avatar
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    Jan 2006
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    Dear Sir

    Yields range from 048 kg/tree/year, with an average yield of 8001,000 kg/ha. Indian field trials showed that fertilizers could increase yields of 15-year-old trees from less than 1 kg/tree to >4 and enabled 6 year olds to average 5.7. Regular applications of 250 g N, 150 g P2O5 and 150 g K2O/tree resulted in average yield increases of 7001600 kg/ha.

    Intercropping may be done the first few years, with cotton, peanut, or yams. Fruits are produced after three years, during which lower branches and suckers are removed. Full production is attained by 10th year and continues to bear until about 30 years old.

    regards

    kirti
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