PREPARATION OF NEEM BIOPESTICIDES AT FARM LEVEL
Neem oil spray
Thirty milliliters of neem oil are added to the emulsifier and stirred well to ensure that the oil and
water can mix well. After this, 1 litre of water is added and stirred well. It is very essential to
add the emulsifier with the oil before adding water. It should be used immediately, otherwise oil droplets
will start floating. A knapsack sprayer is better for neem oil spraying than a hand sprayer.
Pongam, aloe and neem extract
One kilogram of pounded pongam cake, 1 kg of pounded neem cake and 250 g of pounded poison nut tree seeds are put in a muslin pouch and soaked overnight in water. In the morning, the pouch is squeezed and the extract is taken out. This is mixed with 1/2 litre of aloe Vera leaf juice. To
this, 15 litres of water are added. This is again mixed with 2-3 litres of cow’s urine. Before spraying, 1 litre of this mixture is diluted with 10 litres of water. For an acre, 60-100 litres of spray are used. This is effective in the control of pests of cotton and crossandra.
Custard apple, neem, chilli extract
Custard apple, neem, chilli extract Five hundred millilitres of water are added to 2 kg of ground custard apple leaves and stirred. This is filtered to get the extract and the filtrate is kept aside. Separately, 500 g of dry fruits of chilli are soaked in water over- night. The next day, this is ground and the solution iltered to get the extract. One kilogram of crushed neem fruits is soaked in 2 litres of water overnight and the extract is filtered. All the three filtrates are subsequently mixed with 50-60 litres of water, filtered gain and sprayed over the crops. Note: For all the above extracts, 250 millilitres of khadi soap solution should be .
Neem kernel extract
Fifty grams of neem kernel are required for use in 1 litre of water. The neem kernel is pounded gently in such a way that no oil comes out. The outer coat is removed before pounding. This is used as manure. If pounded with the seed coat on, one and a half times the amount of seeds (75 g) is required. The seeds that are used for the preparation of neem kernel extract should be be- tween three and eight months old. therwise, the quantity of azadirachtin in the seeds is quite low and hence they cannot be efficiently used for pest con- trol. The pounded neem kernel powder is gathered in a muslin pouch and soaked overnight in water. The pouch is squeezed and the extract is filtered. To the filtrate, an emulsifier like khadi soap solution (a soap with no deter- gent) is added. One millilitre of emulsifier is added to I litre of water. The emulsifier helps the extract to stick well to the leaf surface. Remarks: The kernel extract should be milky
white in colour and not brownish. The kernel extract does not control sucking insects like aphids, white lies and stem borers. In these