Here is an interesting topic for discussion
As we know India is leading in fruit crops there is a lot of scope to further strenghten this by high density planting.
High density planting proves to be very beneficial as compared to the traditional system of planting as there is efficient use of inputs.
HIGH DENSITY PLANTING (HDP)
1. Is one of the most effective measures to increase productivity per unit area.
2. Efficient method of orchard system
3. precocious, easily manageable, high yield potential with higher returns per unit area.
4. more efficient way of harvesting radiant energy.
for different fruit crops there are different high density spacings.
Banana: tall 3.5 X 3.5 m
Dwarf Cavendish and robusta : 1.2 x 1.2m (6944 plants per hectare)
Tall Poovan : 1.8X 1.8m (3086 plants per ha)
Kew variety: Leading variety of India.
(63,000 plants per ha)
Pusa nanha: 1.25 X 1.25 m (6400 Plants per Ha.)
Mango: HDP 1600 plants per ha.( 2.5 X 2.5m ) in triangular method.
Citrus:Kinnow on Citrange rootstock: 1.8 X 1.8 m(2,990 plants per ha).
Kinnow on Karna kHatta : 2.4 X 2.4 m ( 1,682 plants per ha)
I would like to add in this topic.
Due to increase in population and limited land availability is has become necessary to increase our production target and it can be achieved through high density planting.
So,trend towards HDP is moving fast.
One more thing i would like to add that in other crops like vegetables,flowers and medicinal crops,it can be adopted.Which will really help to cope up with increasing demand.
Thhis is the latest trend in the international markets. It is highly prevalent among Apple farmers in the US, Australia, New Zealand, etc. Even in India some of the farmers in Himachal and Uttarqanchal are now adopting this technique.
The decision to plant a high density supported apple orchard requires a total commitment to this approach. The grower must be prepared to acquire new skills and to do what needs to be done exactly when it needs to be done. With higher density plantings, the impact of a mistake is potentially much greater than with lower density plantings. Add to this the high cost of establishment and one can knowingly say the risks are high. The rewards have the potential to be high in terms of yield and quality of apples. Done properly, a grower should realize a marketable yield from a mature planting of 2000 - 2500 bushels per hectare (800 - 1000 bushels per acre) or more depending on cultivar. Unless these levels of yields are achieved there is probably little advantage to a high density supported system over a well managed, free standing system of lower density.
High-density apple orchards cost more to establish than lower-density orchards. The cost to establish a high density supported orchard at 600 tress/acre could be over $12,000 per acre. Increased costs for a new high-density apple orchard are justified only if returns are generated early to offset these costs. To pay off higher initial costs rapidly, the new orchard must come into production very quickly. The cultivar selected must produce fruit of adequate market value to quickly recover the cost of establishment. To plant a cultivar on a high density supported system that has minimal market value will be a costly mistake.
Site considerations are crucial; so is the time spent in proper preparation. Every attempt must be made to select a site where dwarfing rootstocks with limited root systems will perform well. It is important to choose a site for an apple orchard close to the moderating effect of a large body of water. In Ontario, all successful apple areas are in proximity to one of the Great Lakes and benefit from the climate moderation provided by these large deep bodies of water. Because large bodies of water take a long time to change in temperature, temperature extremes are reduced in both the summer and winter. Their cooling effect in the spring delays the onset of bloom, lessening the risk of damage from spring frosts. In the fall their effect reduces the onset of cold temperatures and the damaging effect these can have on unharvested apples and on trees before they completely harden off.
The topographical elevation of an orchard is important for avoiding spring frosts. A higher elevation relative to the surrounding countryside is desirable because heavier cold air, in the spring, will flow into the lower areas. This makes low areas frost prone resulting in poor tree performance with crop loss and/or damaged fruit. Avoid any obstructions to downward flow of air such as woods, a hedgerow, buildings or even a heavily travelled highway. Woods or hedgerows can be opened to allow airflow by creating 25 m openings every 100 m.
A gentle slope is most desirable. Steep slopes make orchard activities more difficult and are susceptible to soil erosion. Northern slopes are most desirable because they tend to result in delayed bud development in the spring; however, other factors may be important such as reducing exposure to the prevailing wind.
Wind is another consideration. Windy sites should be avoided. Strong winds can reduce the growth rate of trees, increase fruit bruising and fruit drop at harvest, reduce bee activity during pollination and make effective spraying more difficult. Windbreaks can help but excessive snow build up, increased shading and slower drying in the orchard resulting in an increase in fruit and leaf diseases, are drawbacks.